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زبان انگلیسی : اصول یادگیری تدریس ترجمه
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زبان انگلیسی : اصول یادگیری تدریس ترجمه
ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING ,TEACHING AND TRANSLATION  
لینک دوستان
پيوندهای روزانه
[ پنجشنبه 23 آذر1391 ] [ 14:58 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]

Here are 100 advanced English words which should you be able to use them in a sentence will impress even educated native speakers! Perfect if you want to impress the examiner in examinations like: IELTS, TOEFL and Cambridge CAE and CPE. If you are really serious about having an extensive and impressive vocabulary, try learning these and then try these advanced vocabulary tests


ادامه مطلب
[ چهارشنبه 15 شهریور1391 ] [ 16:22 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ یکشنبه 7 خرداد1391 ] [ 23:2 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
Nav-1 ناو: واژه ایرانی به معنی کشتی است و ازهمین ریشه ناوبان – ناوخدای (ناخدا) مشتق می شود. درانگلیسی Navigate (کشتی رانی) وNavigable (قابل کشتی رانی) Navigator (ملاح) Navy blue (آبی سیر) و Naval (وابسته به نیروی دریانی) ازهمین ریشه آمده اند.

 Caravan – 2کاروان.

 Arch-3 قوس: درانگلیسی به مفهوم قوس می باشد. درفارسی "ارک" اراک واریکه داریم که به معنای مرکز قلب وحتی قوس به کار رفته اند .  واژه اراک ایرانشهر به معنی دل ایرانشهر بوده است. ازهمین ریشه کلمات Archreology (قوس شناسی وسپس معماری گرفته شده است.

 King- 4پادشاه : این واژه انگلیسی و  Konig آلمانی و  واژه های مشابه درسوئدی دانمارکی نروژی فنلاندی وایسلندی از ریشه Kay پهلوی وKavi اوستایی است. درزبان پشتو خنتما (نجیب زاده وبزرگوار) ودرزبان ترکی خان به احتمال زیاد بااین ریشه ها قرابت دارند. به این کلمات دقت کنید تا پی به شباهت آنها ببرید.            کی – کیان Kikg- Kigam KONIG- خان – خنتماکان- کاندیدا.

 dinar-5 دینار: پول عربی که ریشه ایرانی اوستایی دارد. (دَریک ) نام پول زمان هخامنشیان که درکتاب مقدس تورات وانجیل یاد شده است. مدتی هم یونانیان مسکوک خود را به صورت دریک به کار می برده اند. هردو ریشه ایرانی دارند ریشه Darik بعدا به صورت Dram ودراخما Drachmaدر زبان یونانی وانگلیسی درآمده است.

 better/best-6از ریشه بهتر و بهشت فارسی هستند . اینکه این دو صفت برتر و برترین در انگلیسی بی قاعده اند علت همین است.
Pepper-7 این واژه ازفلفل ایرانی گرفته شده است. این واژه به شکلPiper درلاتین Poivre درفرانسه peppe ایتالیا و پیری دریونانی است. 
Spinach-8 اسفناج: این واژه ایرانی درزبان های دیگربه صورت گوناگون یافت می شود ازجمله درفنلاند Pikatia پیناتیا در انگلیسی و فرانسه Spinach ودرزبان های دیگر اروپایی کم وبیش تغییراتی کاربرد دارد. جالب این است که بدانیم اسفناج خود معرب سپاناج فارسی است .
 Candy-9کلمه قند واژه ای است پارسی همان طور که شکر واژه ای است ایرانی. پس ازساخته شدن شکر در ایران که ریشه آن ایرانی و فارسی است کلمه کَندکه عربی شده اش  قند است به وجود آمد .کَندو نیز از همین ریشه ی کَند است . یکی از واژه های انگلیسی که ریشه مشابهی با کند یا  قند دارد عبارتست از: Candy (شیرینی ). به گفته محمودی بختیاری کاندیدای وکالت در زمان قدیم لباس سفید رنگ شکری می پوشیده وبه همین ترتیب خود را نامزد انتخابات می کرده و بدین گونه واژه Candidate (کاندیدا نامزد) ساخته شد.

 sugar-10 به معنی شکر نه تنها در فارسی بلکه در عربی (سُکَّــر) و در همه ی زبان های جهان وارد شده است.

Nuphar-11 نیلوفر زردNenophar نام گل زیبای نیلوفر است که درزبان های دیگر اروپا ازجمله فرانسه – یونانی و نیز در ترکی دیده می شود.

- Orange-12 نارنج وترنج درپارسی کهن به نارنج وپرتقال اطلاق می شده اند درفرانسه Orang در ژاپنی Orenzi ودرزبان های ترکی ،کردی ، آسوری وبسیاری اززبان های دیگر دنیا وارد شده است.
 safron- 13زعفران در همه زبانهای جهان وارد شده.

- Ginger-14زنجبیل: درزبان انگلیسی Zenzero ایتالیایی.

Lemon- 15لیمو: ریشه لیمو درغالب زبان های دنیا ازجمله ترکی، فرانسه اسپانیولی ،ایتالیایی و..به کارمی رود .همچنین کلمه Limonade که ازلیمو گرفته شده است. Lemon آب نبات ترش Lemon juice آب لیمو و ... .

 16 - کلمه بوته که ریشه ای پارسی واصیل است درزبان های اروپایی به گونهBotanic (علم گیاه شناسی) وارد شده است. وبه نظر می رسد که واژه ی Pon فنلاندی نیز کوتاه شده آن باشد. درزبان ترکی نیز واژه بوته را داریم.در عربی به صورت بوتَق وارد شده و این واژه Botanic تقریبا بین المللی است ودرتمام زبان های اروپایی به کارمی رود.

alcohl  -17  یا همان الکل نیز هر چند عربی است اما فراموش نکنیم کاشف الکل زکریای رازی ایرانی بود و در دوره ی او چون زبان عربی زبان نوشتار جهان اسلام از جمله ایران بود این دانشمند به جای اینکه یک اسم فارسی روی کشف خود بگذارد یک اسم عربی گذاشت .

18-  بیجامه بیژامه همان پاجامه در فارسی است .

19 - cake  کیک همان است که در کرمانشاه کاک گفته می شود . البته کاک همان کیک نیست . بلکه واژه ی کاک وارد انگلیسی شده است . حتی در عربی نیز وارد شده است .( کَعک ) . اگر کیک و کاک و کعک را امروزه کنار هم بگذاریم سه نوع شیرینی متفاوت هستند . اما ریشه ی آن ها یکی است .

یوگورت به معنی ماست نیز ترکی است که وارد انگلیسی شده است .

به نقل از : http://adel-ashkboos.mihanblog.com/post/199

[ یکشنبه 7 خرداد1391 ] [ 22:50 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ یکشنبه 7 خرداد1391 ] [ 22:48 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
 

ویژگی مهم آن دارا بودن بیش از 12 هزار واژه در زمینه SAT, TOEFL, GRE, GMAT, VOA Special English است. از دیگر امکانات این نرم افزار یادگیری لغات با استفاده از شیوه های گوناگون و جالب است که به کاربر این امکان را می دهد تا در محیطی شاداب لغات را بخاطر بسپارد.

[ پنجشنبه 17 فروردین1391 ] [ 11:41 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ دوشنبه 22 شهریور1389 ] [ 23:49 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ یکشنبه 21 شهریور1389 ] [ 0:41 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ جمعه 18 تیر1389 ] [ 13:40 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ دوشنبه 20 اردیبهشت1389 ] [ 15:44 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ جمعه 30 مرداد1388 ] [ 15:3 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ جمعه 30 مرداد1388 ] [ 14:55 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ جمعه 1 آذر1387 ] [ 10:58 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
 نام نرم افزاری است که  توسط آن می توانید دایره ی لغات خود را گسترش دهید . با استفاده روزانه کمتر از 15 دقیقه از این برنامه می توانید تعداد واژگان بسیار زیادی از زبان انگلیسی را در حافظه ی بلند مدت خود برای همیشه به ثبت برسانید . . .

البته این را به خاطر داشته باشید که مساله یادگیری زبان صرفا در حفظ کردن لغات خلاصه نمی شود . شما می توانید در کنار روشهای دیگر یادگیری ، از این نرم افزار نیز استفاده کنید .

در صورتی که در مورد این برنامه و نحوه ی اجرای آن سوالی داشتید در قسمت نظرات مطرح فرمایید .

 برای دریافت نسخه رایگان این برنامه  با حجم حدود 6 مگابایت  از لینک زیر استفاده کنید :

http://dl.filekicker.com/send/file/181611-P0KM/wordhacker_golden_en.exe

و در صورت نیاز به تلفظ لغات ، پکیج صوتی زیر را نیز دانلود کنید :

http://dl.filekicker.com/send/file/181975-3712/WordAudio.zip


[ چهارشنبه 15 خرداد1387 ] [ 19:53 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]

The keyword mnemonic is undoubtedly an effective means of learning the words of a foreign language

How well you remember depends on how well you learned them, not on whether you have learned the words using a keyword mnemonic or rote repetition or some other method

Even using a keyword mnemonic, you still need to rehearse the information to be learned

The keyword mnemonic is not always the best method of learning particular words

Skilled learners may be best to use the keyword mnemonic selectively, for particularly difficult words

The keyword mnemonic requires individual instruction and practice, to use effectively

Using a verbal (sentence) link is at least as effective as an image, and is easier for many people

Whether using a sentence or an image, the critical factor is that the keyword interact with the definition or own-language word

Remembering for the long term

Are some keyword mnemonics easier to remember than others

Controlled presentation

The importance of one-to-one instruction and the need for practice

Some words benefit more from the keyword mnemonic

How important is the image

Is the keyword mnemonic of greater benefit to less able students

Comparing the keyword mnemonic to other strategies

Backward recall

Using the keyword mnemonic to remember gender

Why should the keyword mnemonic be an effective strategy

References

[ چهارشنبه 15 خرداد1387 ] [ 19:45 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ یکشنبه 12 خرداد1387 ] [ 16:8 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

http://www.mun.ca/Ansaxdat/vocab/wordlist.html

hath (v.) Archaic Third person singular present tense of have
[ شنبه 31 فروردین1387 ] [ 8:41 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ جمعه 2 فروردین1387 ] [ 20:17 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]

Is there one measure of a person's language skill? Are tests like TOEFL TOEIC or IELTS reliable indicators

In a way the simplest way to find out how well a person uses a language is to ask that person some questions that require lengthy answers, orally or in writing. On oral expose or a written essay will quickly show how the person uses the language. But all of that takes time and the evaluation is necessarily subjective.

So at The Linguist we have a simple scale, one which is easy to measure. It is the number of words known. This can be measured in a cloze test, a test where certain words are blanked out and the learner has to choose from a drop list.

I believe that the number of words known has the advantage of being extremely simple and yet reliable. Most of the learner's skills will correlate to this one index.

We have six levels for our learners

Beginner  a)  2,000  b) 3,500   Intermediate a) 5,000  b) 7,5000  Advanced a) 10,000 b) 12,500

Some people may speak better than their known word total, at least in casual social conversation.
This means they should read and listen more, work on vocabulary and then write more to increase their vocabulary.

Some people may not speak as well as their word total suggests. They should listen more to content they already understand well. They should focus more on learning phrases. They should work harder on pronunciation. They may also have to write more and then practice reading their corrected writing out loud. If they have the opportunity they should speak more.

Of course each person's case is individual. But the number of words known is still a reliable and yet simple indicator of a person's level. In The Linguist it is an easy number to follow, because we measure vocabulary growth. If a student has 3,000 words then he or she knows what the goal should be. He or she can measure progress towards this goal on a monthly, weekly or even daily basis.

The high frequency words are easier to learn because they are encountered more frequently. On the other hand they are difficult to learn because the learner is not familiar with the language and every words seems strange. Later on the words are encountered less often, but on the other hand the learner is now familiar with relationships between words. Prefixes, suffixes, root words and other similarities between words are easily recognized. Also the learner is better and better able to guess at meaning as the number of unknown words in any text is smaller. So it all balances out.

We count each form of a words as a different word. On this basis I believe a person can learn 25 or more words a day using our system. Most people will learn half that number. This does require, however, a lot of listening to our content on their MP3 players and reading the texts and reviewing words and phrases.

[ پنجشنبه 13 دی1386 ] [ 16:14 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]

The biggest challenge when studying vocabulary is to actually remember the words you just learned. Some words seem to stick to your memory immediately whereas you seem to always forget others.

There are several ways to improve your memory when learning foreign language vocabulary. None is foolproof and all require some work, but with those tips you will be able to learn more efficiently:

When meeting a new word, you need to make it stick to its meaning in your mind. You can picture your memory as a giant Christmas trees, with many branches representing each a part of your memory. To remember a new word, you need to hang it on a branch, existing or newly created. It is extremely difficult to remember more than a few new words when they are totally out of the blue and not tied in any way to something else that is already in your memory. Fortunately, there are many ways to tie a new word to something in your memory:

[ شنبه 24 آذر1386 ] [ 16:45 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ شنبه 19 آبان1386 ] [ 16:5 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]

The English Language

Words Borrowed from Other Languages

Hundreds of words from 146 languages

Click on a letter link below to locate a language
Click the language link to display a table of words borrowed into English from that language

Alternatively you can perform a


Borrowed Words Search.

[ دوشنبه 23 مهر1386 ] [ 16:56 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ دوشنبه 23 مهر1386 ] [ 16:47 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ چهارشنبه 3 مرداد1386 ] [ 11:27 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]

pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis

"A lung condition caused by inhalation of very fine silica dust"

[ سه شنبه 1 اسفند1385 ] [ 16:49 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]

We all know grammar is important. However, without a large vocabulary it's difficult to express what you want. This course is dedicated to helping expand your vocabulary. You will receive an e-mail each week with a new vocabulary lesson. Here are the 8 lessons:

1. Building Your Vocabulary: Tips and Strategies
2. Collocations: Words that Go Together
3. Vocabulary Groups: The Most Important Nouns Grouped by Theme
4. Idiomatic Language
5. Phrasal Verbs
6. Confusing Words: Common Problem Pairs
7. On-The-Job Vocabulary
8. British and American English: Vocabulary Differences


ادامه مطلب
[ جمعه 15 دی1385 ] [ 19:4 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]


Brokeback Marriage n. Thanks to Heath Ledger, Jake Gyllenhaal and their celebrated screen tragedy, this describes a union between a gay man and a straight woman or a gay married man having an affair


ادامه مطلب
[ پنجشنبه 14 دی1385 ] [ 11:16 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ جمعه 24 آذر1385 ] [ 17:42 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ جمعه 17 آذر1385 ] [ 17:11 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ چهارشنبه 15 آذر1385 ] [ 9:55 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ چهارشنبه 15 آذر1385 ] [ 8:39 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]

Roots of English              
                                An Etymological Dictionary*

http://artsci.shu.edu/classics/classics/rootsof.htm

 

[ یکشنبه 5 آذر1385 ] [ 16:32 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ جمعه 3 آذر1385 ] [ 17:46 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]

براستي در يك كلمه چه مي گذرد ؟!

ريشه شناسي يا اتيمولوژي  به معناي شناسايي و رديابي تاريخچه و منشا يك كلمه است . اين كار يا با ارائه خواستگاه كلمه و يا با تجزيه كلمه به ريشه پيش وند و پس وند آن صورت مي گيرد .

What is Etymology

The word etymology is derived from the Greek etumos which means real or true. The ending ology suggests the study/science of something, as in biology or geology. And that is the etymology of etymology. It is the study of the origins of words; how they evolved. Confused?

Here is another example. The Ancient Greek word hippos means horse. And potamus means river. Hence hippopotamus literally means river horse.

A few other parts of words derived from Ancient Greek are tele (long distance), micro (small), phone (speak), and scope (look). From these come such words as telephone, telescope, microphone, and microscope.

Of course not all words are derived from Ancient Greek. The English language is a rich mixture of many languages, and that is what makes its etymology so interesting. In the Interesting Etymology section you can learn how many words came about, particularly those with amusing origins. We also have a page about the origins of sayings and expressions.

If you are keen to discover more, browse the reviews in the etymology section of our online language bookstore. There are very many excllent books on etymology and dictionaries of etymology available.

امروزه يكي از بهترين راههاي يادگيري و حدس كلمات ريشه شناسي است چرا كه هم مي تواند جالب باشد و هم در كوتاه ترين مدت زمان بيشترين اثر بخشي را دارد و كلمات از اين طريق بيشتر در حافظه مي مانند .

مثلا به ريشه شناسي اين كلمات نگاه كنيد

 

ريشه شناسي اسامي ABRAHAM : FATHER OF MANY

The Ancient Greek word hippos means horse. And potamus means river. Hence hippopotamus literally means river horse.

ريشه شناسي عبارات و اصطلاحات To make hay while the sun shines

to take advantage of favorable circumstances; they may not last.

This old expression refers to the production of hay, or dried grass. The warmth of the sun is required to dry the grass and turn it into hay. As the sun is notoriously unpredictable (it may be cloudy later) the message of this aphorism is clear. The expression dates back many centuries, and has changed little in form. John Heywood included the following in his "All the Prouerbes in the Englishe Tongue" (1546):

Hazard

n. Danger; vb. To risk or expose to danger.

This term evolved from the Arabic al zahr, which means the dice. In Western Europe the term came to be associated with a number of games using dice, which were learned during the Crusades whilst in the Holy Land. The term eventually took on the connotation of danger because, from very early on, games using dice were associated with the risky business of gambling and con artists using corrupted dice.

 

براي جزئيات بيشتر به سايتهاي زير برويد :


ادامه مطلب
[ چهارشنبه 17 آبان1385 ] [ 9:16 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ سه شنبه 18 مهر1385 ] [ 9:48 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ پنجشنبه 13 مهر1385 ] [ 10:36 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]

 

The science of Word Histories

Etymology is the study of the origin and the histories of words. Word Histories, both true and false, sometimes catch the public fancy and are often repeated. In classical times, Greeks and Romans showed a similar curiosity about the sources of the words they used. The Greeks called the derivation of a word its etymologia.


ادامه مطلب
[ دوشنبه 27 شهریور1385 ] [ 17:23 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ پنجشنبه 2 شهریور1385 ] [ 13:58 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
شناخت اشتقاق و دگرگوني واژگان در طول تاريخ هر زبان ، امروزه دانشي را پايه ‏گذارده است كه ريشه‏ شناسي (etymology) خوانده مي ‏شود . اين علم مي‏ كوشد تا از طريق روشن ساختن خاستگاه و مبدا واژگان ، به درك بهتري از مفاهيم دست يابد . در اين ميان ، ارتباط زبان مورد نظر (براي نمونه انگليسي) با زبان‏هاي خويشاوند (همچون زبان‏هاي هندواروپايي ) از زمينه‏ هاي ديگر تحقيق بشمار آمده و علم ريشه‏ شناسي مي ‏كوشد تا فراتر از شيوه اشتقاق عاميانه ( كه برپايه همانندي ظاهري واژگان است ) ، با توجه به اصول آوايي حاكم بر زبان و قوانين مربوط به دگرگوني آواها ، سير تغييرات كلمات و معاني را بشناساند . اگرچه اين سختپايي در عقيده وجود دارد كه درنظرگرفتن درآميختگي‏ هاي معنايي هر واژه با معناي واژگان پيش‏ از آن ، ممكن است نسبت به تأكيد خاص بر معناي واژه در خود زبان ، داراي اهميت بسيار كمتري باشد . بنابراين در ريشه‏ شناسي ، از ميان موانع زباني ، سيري به عقب در تاريخچه واژه درآيه وجود داشته و دوباره تا واژه انگليسي امروزي مربوط به آن ، ره پيموده مي‏ شود .

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[ شنبه 7 مرداد1385 ] [ 10:10 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ شنبه 10 تیر1385 ] [ 22:21 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ شنبه 10 تیر1385 ] [ 22:19 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
"We don't just borrow words. On occasion, English has pursued other languages down alleyways to beat them unconscious and rifle their pockets for new vocabulary". (James D. Nicoll)

These are lists of words in the English language which are known as "loanwords" or "borrowings," which are derived from other languages:

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[ شنبه 10 تیر1385 ] [ 22:11 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
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[ سه شنبه 5 اردیبهشت1385 ] [ 14:15 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
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[ چهارشنبه 17 اسفند1384 ] [ 15:37 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ دوشنبه 15 اسفند1384 ] [ 18:9 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
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[ دوشنبه 15 اسفند1384 ] [ 18:3 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ جمعه 5 اسفند1384 ] [ 20:24 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ جمعه 28 بهمن1384 ] [ 12:44 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
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[ جمعه 28 بهمن1384 ] [ 12:41 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ جمعه 28 بهمن1384 ] [ 12:39 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ جمعه 28 بهمن1384 ] [ 12:38 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]

Vocabster is a software program which helps you to master the meaning of about 3000 words of English vocabulary.
The pedagogical approach is modern and the subjects are related to the vocabulary points which deal with daily life and contemporary environment.
At the end of each level, there are 5 tests for reviewing and evaluating progress achieved.
A "light" version of Vocabster can be downloaded free of charge — just click on the
download link.
The network version allows you to follow your students' progress in detail, and can be used on the same (geographical) site with an unlimited number of PCs!

[ جمعه 28 بهمن1384 ] [ 12:35 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ جمعه 28 بهمن1384 ] [ 12:24 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ دوشنبه 24 بهمن1384 ] [ 17:8 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
Arabic Number to English Convertor (Requires JavaScript.)
Enter a number up to 999,999,999 and see it spelled out in English.

Read, listen and learn the English in this week's stories.

Discover the top ten favourite words in Britain.

Words that native English speakers frequently find confusing.

ادامه مطلب
[ دوشنبه 3 بهمن1384 ] [ 14:54 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ دوشنبه 19 دی1384 ] [ 18:47 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]

This page contains academic vocabulary. Click on a number to see the word list: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. EAP students should try to learn one list each week. Although there are about 60 items in each list, many of them you will know already.

To find a word, hold down the Ctrl key on your keyboard, then press F.

[ دوشنبه 19 دی1384 ] [ 18:44 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ یکشنبه 18 دی1384 ] [ 17:21 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
[ یکشنبه 18 دی1384 ] [ 17:20 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
  • WORDS "A" only-- ____GAP FILL: Paola and her jealous boyfriend [Interactive Version]
  • WORDS "B" to "C" ____GAP FILL: King Richard and the youthful Cordelia [Interactive Version]
  • WORDS "D" to "E" ____GAP FILL: George the Veterinary Surgeon & Susan the Geologist
  • WORDS "F" to "J" ____GAP FILL: Diana, Princess of Wales
  • WORDS "K" to "P" ____GAP FILL: Jimmy Miller, playwright and folk singer
  • WORDS "Q" to "S" ____GAP FILL: Football Managers, Faith Healers and Psychologists
  • WORDS "T" to "Z" ____GAP FILL: Lola's Love for Alicante
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    [ یکشنبه 27 آذر1384 ] [ 17:24 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
    [ یکشنبه 27 آذر1384 ] [ 17:18 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
    [ پنجشنبه 24 آذر1384 ] [ 14:16 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
    [ چهارشنبه 23 آذر1384 ] [ 20:5 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
    [ چهارشنبه 16 آذر1384 ] [ 19:32 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
    Latin and Greek have contributed thousands of words that have become integrated into English Vocabulary



    The English vocabulary development activities and resources in this and related sites are based primarily on Latin and Greek elements that are included in thousands of English terms and expressions. A very small number of schools currently provide learning situations and activities that include vocabulary etymology and histories; therefore, it is advantageous for students to learn more about English development, as well as, oxymora (a.k.a. oxymorons), stories, pleonasms (redundancies), and other related terms that are provided online with this Focusing on Words program.

    There are also many proverbs, legal terms, mottoes, and self-scoring quizzes, and other vocabulary activities that will help in the literary development of vocabulary proficiency so students of any age can learn these important advanced skills with the resources in these pages.

    Also, be aware of the many self-testing and scoring (grading) opportunities that are available; as well as the, Latin-Greek Cross References dictionary, or lexicon, that provides thousands of vocabulary-thematic units with special search features for a greater variety of dictionary results. You may also have the advantages of another source to thousands of English words that are derived from Latin and Greek elements by clicking on this link: Latin-Greek Cross References.

    To know the origin of words is to know how men think, how they have fashioned their civilizations. Word history traces the paths of human relationships, the bridges from mind to mind, and from nation to nation.

    The English Language Is Truly International!

    Some of the words in English can be traced to a remote past; some have histories that began yesterday or are even beginning today. Slow changes, swift new coinages of science or slang, ancient or recent borrowing from many tongues; together they give flexibility, power, and beauty to English, the richest and most widespread language of all time.

    Whether you are a “native speaker” or have learned English through studies, this FREE Latin-Greek Cross References will provide you with samples of Latin-Greek elements (prefixes, roots, and suffixes) that exist in English so you will have a better idea about the main parts of the important English words.

    Remember, words are the tools with which you think, communicate, and learn. The more words you know, the better you can think, communicate, and absorb knowledge; not just about English, but about everything that is important to you.

    The more limited your vocabulary is, the harder survival is in our global-economic society; and certainly you want more than just to survive. It is an indisputable fact that your chances for success increase with the size and applications of your vocabulary.

    Building a larger vocabulary doesn’t require you to spend hours memorizing definitions; however, it does require that you become word-conscious, that you have a curiosity about words, not only about their meanings but especially about their origins.

    Why is an extensive vocabulary such an important asset

    As stated earlier, words are the building blocks of thought. They are the means by which we understand the ideas of others and express our own opinions. It is only logical then that people who know how to use words concisely and accurately find it easier to achieve their aims.

    In fact, you should realize that formal education has less relationship to vocabulary achievement than you might expect, indicating that people can improve their word power on their own. This and the related linking sites will show you how to expand and to improve your English vocabulary skills. Now, it is up to you to take advantage of these rich vocabulary resources!

     

     


     

    [ یکشنبه 22 آبان1384 ] [ 15:51 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
     

    "Words fascinate me.   They always have.   For me, browsing in a dictionary is like being turned loose in a bank." -- Eddie Cantor

    
    
    [ سه شنبه 1 شهریور1384 ] [ 10:59 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]

    These pages focus on vocabulary instruction. Other pages dealing with word study are Words at Play, Etymology, and Spelling.

    abcteach.com
    Among the generous links at this site are elementary/primary-level Word Searches, Crossword Puzzles, Shape Books, and ABC activities, all ready to print and use!

    AP Vocabulary
    This list of vocabulary words was drawn from the 2000-01 test. It does not include literary terms.

    Building a Better Vocabulary
    This page includes a wealth of resources, including Latin root words, prefixes and suffixes. Scroll down to find related sites and online quizzes appropriate for secondary students.

    Calliope, Muse of Eloquence
    An interactive, Web-based series of lessons. Students explore words from Latin and Greek mythology. Worksheets available at the site help students stay focused and avoid random clicking.

    Changing Language, Beowulf to Buzzwords
    Students read and listen to sample texts from Old, Middle, and Modern English. Activities guide students to an understanding of changes in English. This site, sponsored by the British Library, has two levels. Be sure to click on the "Teachers Information" link.

    An Etymological Dictionary of Classical Mythology
    Browsable or searchable, this site has lists of words that have entered English from mythology.

    The Dictionary Game
    Pictionary comes to the classroom.

    Euphemisms
    Students learn the concept of euphemism and at least five examples.

    The Evolution of Languages
    A beautiful site exploring etymology, regional dialects, cognates.

    Finding New Ways to Say Something
    Students select the right synonym to complete a sentence, match words to their thesaurus entries, and practice alphabetizing skills. These online activities are designed for adult learners and will work with middle school and above.

    Integrated Vocabulary, Creative Writing, and Listening Exercise
    Students use new words to write a story and to help classmates learn the word.

    Kid Crosswords and Other Puzzles
    A variety of thematic puzzles for younger students. They can be printed out or completed online. Be sure to check through the archives and the Spanish page. These puzzles are very well done.

    Learning Vocabulary can be Fun
    This interactive site offers a variety of games using words assigned by category (animals, food, geography, etc.). Depending on the game and words chosen, these are appropriate for up to about 7th grade.

    The Lexicon Challenge
    Students compete on vocabulary teams.

    Multisensory Vocabulary Guidelines and Activities
    Suggestions for a variety of approaches.

    Vocabulary pages >>> | 1 | 2 |

    [ دوشنبه 31 مرداد1384 ] [ 10:44 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]

    Where Words Come From

    The English language has developed from an Anglo-Saxon base of common words: household words, parts of the body, common animals, natural elements, most pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions and auxiliary verbs. Other modern words in English have developed from five sources. These are discussed below.

    Words Created From Nothing

    Examples of words that have just appeared in the language out of nothing are byte, dog (replacing the earlier hund), donkey, jam, kick, log, quasar, google, and yuppie.

    Shakespere coined over 1600 words including countless, critical, excellent, lonely, majestic, obscene.

    From Ben Johnson we got damp, from Isaac Newton centrifugal and from Thomas More: explain and exact.

    Words Created In Error

    The vegetable pease was thought to be a plural so that the individual item in the pod was given the name pea. The verb laze was erroneously created from the adjective lazy. The word buttonhole was a mis-hearing of button-hold.

    Borrowed and Adopted Words

    English has borrowed words from a variety of sources and other languages. Three examples show this.

    Orange

    The name of the fruit was NARANJ in Sanskrit. This language was spoken in ancient India. Indians traded with Arabs, so the word passed into Arabic as NARANJAH. The Spaniards were ruled by north African Arabs who passed the fruit and word into Spanish as NARANJA (pronounced as NARANHA).

    This came into English where the fruit was a NARANJ. Words ending in J are not common in English so the spelling quickly changed to a NARANGE.

    The initial N moved to the a because of mis-hearing to give an ARANGE (this is called metanalysis).

    Over time, the initial A became an O to give an ORANGE.

    Chocolate

    When the Spanish arrived in Mexico they came across the Aztecs. The Aztec language is called Nahuatl. The Aztecs had a drink which they made from a bean they called CHOCO (bitter). They would put this bean into water (ATL) to produce CHOCO-ATL (bitter water).

    The TL sound is common in the Aztec language but not in Spanish. The Spaniards inserted an A between the T and L and pronounced the drink CHOCOLATO.

    This drink was brought to Europe (with sugar added) where the pronunciation and spelling in English became CHOCOLATE.

    Algebra

    This is a mathematical term. It comes from Arabic.

    Mohammad al-Khwarizmi was a mathematician who flourished in Baghdad around the year 800. He wrote a book about the solving of equations. It was called ilm al-jabr wa'l muqabalah (the science of transposition and cancellation).

    The term al-jabr from this title gave the English word, ALGEBRA.

    Checkmate

    This is a term in chess. It is from the Farsi language spoken in Iran and Afghanistan. The original phrase is SHAH-K-MATE (every syllable pronounced) which means "The King is Dead".

    The word SHAH means a "king" as in the last monarch (or SHAH) of Iran. MATE has the same root as the English "murder" and the Spanish "matador" (killer).

    The word came via French (where the SH became a CH) and into English where the MA-TE (two syllables) became MATE (one syllable) to give CHECKMATE.

    Changes In Words

    Many words used in modern English have changed their meaning over the years. This is shown in the table below.

    Word Original Meaning
    awful deserving of awe
    brave cowardice (as in bravado)
    counterfeit legitimate copy
    girl young person of either sex
    guess take aim
    knight boy
    luxury sinful self indulgence
    neck parcel of land (as in neck of the woods)
    notorious famous
    nuisance injury, harm
    quick alive (as in quicksilver)
    sophisticated corrupted
    tell to count (as in bank teller)
    truant beggar

    The word silly meant blessed or happy in the 11th century going through pious, innocent, harmless, pitiable, feeble, feeble minded before finally ending up as foolish or stupid.

    Pretty began as crafty then changed via clever, skilfully made, fine to beautiful.

    Buxom began with the meaning obedient and changed via compliant, lively, plump to large breasted.

    The word nice meant stupid and foolish in the late 13th Century. It went through a number of changes including wanton, extravagant, elegant, strange, modest, thin, and shy. By the middle of the 18th Century it had gained its current meaning of pleasant and agreeable.

    Words are changing meaning now: consider how the words bad and gay have changed in recent years.

    Words Created By Subtraction Or Addition

    Words can be created by adding suffixes: -able, -ness, -ment. They can also be created by adding prefixes: dis-, anti-.

    Examples include: sellable, brightness, pavement, disestablish, antideluvian.

    Words can be combined to form new words (air and port gave airport; land and mark to give landmark). Sometimes the combination can go in more than one way (houseboat, boathouse; bookcase, casebook).

    Many common words have been shortened from the original term as in the table below.

    Modern Word Original Form
    bra brassier
    bus omnibus (Latin: for everyone)
    exam examination
    gym gymnasium
    knickers knickerbockers
    lab laboratory
    mob mobile vulgus (Latin: fickle crowd)
    petrol petroleum (Greek: rock oil)
    pram parambulator

    Metanalysis is the process where a letter is added or subtracted because of a nearby word. Examples below.

    Modern Word Original Form
    a nickname an ekename
    a newt an ewt
    an adder a nadder
    an apron a napron
    an orange a narange
    an umpire a nonper


    Where Surnames Come From

    English and British surnames (family names) have four main sources: the person's occupation, the place of origin, a nickname and relations. Examples of these can be seen in the tables below.

    Occupations

    Name Meaning
    Archer bow and arrow user
    Bishop bishop's man
    Butcher meat worker
    Carpenter wheel repairer
    Fletcher arrow maker
    Fuller cloth cleaner
    Miller grain grinder
    Shepherd herder of sheep
    Smith metal worker

    Places

    Name Origin
    Devonshire an English county
    French from France
    Lincoln an English city
    Kent an English county
    Preston an English city
    Scott from Scotland
    Walsh from Wales

    Nicknames

    Name Meaning
    Armstrong strong armed
    Campbell crooked mouth
    Goldwater urine (derogatory)
    Kennedy Gaelic: ugly head
    Morgan Welsh: white haired
    Russell French: red haired
    Whistler one who whistles
    Whitehead white headed

    Relations

    Name Meaning
    Johnson son of John
    MacDonald son of Donald (Scottish)
    O'Connor son of Connor (Irish)
    Robinson son of Robin


    Where First Names Come From

    First names (given names in American English, a more accurate term) have many sources as can be seen in the tables below. Please note that the phrase first name may be ambiguous in some cultures (eg. Chinese) where the family name comes first. I do not use the term Christian name as it makes cultural assumptions.

    There is a Search facility for finding names or meanings.

    Examples: Amber, Ali, Mohammed...

    Examples: Bartholomew, Martha, Thomas...

    Example: Lilith...

    Examples: Brian, Dylan, Kermit, Tara...

    Examples: Alison, Bruce, Olivia...

    Examples: Charles, Leonard, Richard, William...

    Examples: Angel, Christopher, George, Selina...

    Examples: Adam, David, John, Michelle...

    Examples: Bianca, Donna, Mia...

    Examples: Cordelia, Diana, Patrick, Victoria...

    Examples: Brenda, Dustin, Eric...

    Examples: Edward, Oscar, Wayne...

    Examples: Esther, Jasmine, Roxanne...

    Example: Hannibal...

    Examples: Beryl, Opal, Uma...

    Examples: Boris, Nadia, Vera...

    Examples: Dolores, Linda, Rio...

    Example: Ayla...

    A search engine that allows a search for First (Given) names.


    Where Place Names Come From

    The table below shows the historical influence of various languages in names of places and their derivations for the British Isles.

    Source Language Meaning Modern Forms
    ac Anglo-Saxon oak Ac-, Oak-, -ock
    baile Gaelic farm, village Bally-, Bal-
    bearu Anglo-Saxon grove, wood Barrow-, -ber
    beorg Anglo-Saxon burial mound Bar-, -borough
    brycg Anglo-Saxon bridge Brig-, -bridge
    burh Anglo-Saxon fortified place Bur-, -bury
    burna Anglo-Saxon stream, spring Bourn-, -burn(e)
    by Old Norse farm, village -by
    caer Welsh fortified place Car-
    ceaster Latin fort, Roman town Chester-, -caster
    cot Anglo-Saxon shelter, cottage -cot(e)
    cwm Welsh deep valley -combe
    daire Gaelic oak wood -dare, -derry
    dalr Old Norse valley Dal-, -dale
    denn Anglo-Saxon swine pasture -dean, -den
    dun Anglo-Saxon hill, down Dun-, -down, -ton
    ea Anglo-Saxon water, river Ya-, Ea-, -ey
    eg Anglo-Saxon island Ey-
    ey Old Norse island -ey, -ay
    gleann Gaelic narrow valley Glen-
    graf Anglo-Saxon grove -grave, -grove
    ham Anglo-Saxon homestead, village Ham-, -ham
    hyrst Anglo-Saxon wooded hill Hurst-, -hirst
    -ing Anglo-Saxon place of ... -ing
    leah Anglo-Saxon glade, clearing Leigh-, Lee-, -ley
    loch Gaelic lake Loch-, -loch
    mere Anglo-Saxon lake, pool Mer-, Mar-, -mere, -more
    nes Old Norse cape -ness
    pwll Welsh anchorage, pool -pool
    rhos Welsh moorland Ros(s)-, -rose
    stan Anglo-Saxon stone Stan-, -stone
    stede Anglo-Saxon place, site -ste(a)d
    stoc Anglo-Saxon meeting place Stoke-, -stock
    stow Anglo-Saxon meeting place Stow-, -stow(e)
    straet Latin Roman road Strat-, Stret-, -street
    tun Anglo-Saxon enclosure, village Ton-, -town, -ton
    thorp Old Norse farm, village Thorp-, -thorp(e)
    thveit Old Norse glade, clearing -thwaite
    wic Anglo-Saxon dwelling, farm -wick, -wich

    © 2001, 2005 KryssTal

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    برای دانلود این دایره المعارف بسیار مفید کلیک کنید :

    http://www.winsite.com/bin/Info?15000000036366

     

    [ چهارشنبه 26 مرداد1384 ] [ 10:54 ] [ عضو هیات علمی ]
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    ریشه ها و پیش وندها

    http://www.virtualsalt.com/roots.htm

    ریشه های لاتین و یونانی

    http://www.awrsd.org/oak/Library/greek_and_latin_root_words.htm

    http://www.msu.edu/~defores1/gre/roots/gre_rts_afx1.htm

    اصول اتیمولوژی یا ریشه شناسی

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etymology

     

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    .: Weblog Themes By Pichak :.

    درباره وبلاگ

    راهنمایی در باره آموزش و یادگیری زبان انگليسي و ديگر زبانهاي زنده جهان / کمک به علاقه مندان دانشجويان و اساتيد این رشته در بهر ه گيري از سايتها و منابع مفید و روزآمد اینترنتی / ايجاد بانك جامعی از لينكها و سايتهاي اينترنتي و پاسخ به سوالات علاقه مندان به زبانهای خارجی / ايجاد محفلي علمي براي تبادل نظر و همفكري ميان متخصصين و صاحب نظران امر آموزش زبان در ایران و جهان


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